Impact of multiple modes on the evolution of self-interacting axion condensate around rotating black holes

Hidetoshi Omiya, Takuya Takahashi, Takahiro Tanaka, Hirotaka Yoshino

Submitted on 3 November 2022


Ultra-light particles, such as axions, form a macroscopic condensate around a highly spinning black hole by the superradiant instability. Due to its macroscopic nature, the condensate opens the possibility of detecting the axion through gravitational wave observations. However, the precise evolution of the condensate must be known for the actual detection. For future observation, we numerically study the influence of the self-interaction, especially interaction between different modes, on the evolution of the condensate in detail. First, we focus on the case when condensate starts with the smallest possible angular quantum number. For this case, we perform the non-linear calculation and show that the dissipation induced by the mode interaction is strong enough to saturate the superradiant instability, even if the secondary cloud starts with quantum fluctuations. Our result indicates that explosive phenomena such as bosenova do not occur in this case. We also show that the condensate settles to a quasi-stationary state mainly composed of two modes, one with the smallest angular quantum number for which the superradiant instability occurs and the other with the adjacent higher angular quantum number. We also study the case when the condensate starts with the dominance of the higher angular quantum number. We show that the dissipation process induced by the mode coupling does not occur for small gravitational coupling. Therefore, bosenova might occur in this case.


Comment: 29 pages, 25 figures, 1 table

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology; Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics; High Energy Physics - Phenomenology; High Energy Physics - Theory


The growth rate of the superradiant instability as function of $\mu M$. The red solid, blue dashed, and black dotted lines correspond to the imaginary part of the frequencies $\omega^{(n)}$ for $n = l + 1 + n',$ with  $n' = 0,1,$ and $2$, respectively. The spin of the central BH is set to $a/M = 0.99$.