5G is destined to be supporting large deployment of Industrial IoT (IIoT)
with the characteristics of ultra-high densification and low latency. 5G
utilizes a more intelligent architecture, with Radio Access Networks (RANs) no
longer constrained by base station proximity or proprietary infrastructure. The
3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) covers telecommunication technologies
including RAN, core transport networks and service capabilities. Open RAN
Alliance (O-RAN) aims to define implementation and deployment architectures,
focusing on open-source interfaces and functional units to further reduce the
cost and complexity. O-RAN based 5G networks could use components from
different hardware and software vendors, promoting vendor diversity,
interchangeability and 5G supply chain resiliency. Both 3GPP and O-RAN 5G have
to manage the security and privacy challenges that arose from the deployment.
Many existing research studies have addressed the threats and vulnerabilities
within each system. 5G also has the overwhelming challenges in compliance with
privacy regulations and requirements which mandate the user identifiable
information need to be protected.
In this paper, we look into the 3GPP and O-RAN 5G security and privacy
designs and the identified threats and vulnerabilities. We also discuss how to
extend the Zero Trust Model to provide advanced protection over 5G air
interfaces and network components.
Subject: Computer Science - Cryptography and Security