Double Shells of the Planetary Nebula NGC 7009 Minor Axis

Seong-Jae Lee, Siek Hyung, Masaaki Otsuka

Submitted on 19 September 2022


We analyzed the minor axis spectra of the elliptical planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7009 observed with the Keck HIRES with a 0.862" × 10" slit placed at about 7.5" and 10" away from the center and a 0.862" × 14" slit at the center. The mean densities derived from the integrated [SII] 6716/6731\r{A}, fluxes along the Keck HIRES slit length indicate a density range of 103.7 to 104.1 cm3, while the local densities derived from the slit spectral images show a large local density variation of about 102.8 - 104.6 cm3: local densities vary substantially more than values integrated over the line of sight. The expansion rates of the main and outer shells obtained by [SII] are about 21.7 and 30.0 kms1, respectively. The kinematic results of the [SII] spectral lines correspond to the outermost regions of the two shells and are not representative of the whole PN but are closely related to the other emission lines observed in the shell gas. We conclude that the density contrast leads to the formation of the inner shell, while the change in ionization state leads to the formation of the outer shell. We suggest that the inner main and outer shells result from two successive major ejections. The physical conditions of the central star must have been different when these shells first formed.


Comment: 15 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

Subjects: Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies