Cygnus X-1, as the first discovered black hole binary, is a key source for understanding the mechanisms of state transitions, and the scenarios of accretion in extreme gravity fields. We present a spectral-timing analysis of observations taken with the Insight-HXMT mission, focusing on the spectral-state dependent timing properties in the broad energy range of 1--150 keV, thus extending previous RXTE-based studies to both lower and higher energies. Our main results are the following: a) We successfully use a simple empirical model to fit all spectra, confirming that the reflection component is stronger in the soft state than in the hard state; b) The evolution of the total fractional root mean square (rms) depends on the selected energy band and the spectral shape, which is a direct result of the evolution of the power spectral densities (PSDs); c) In the hard/intermediate state, we see clear short-term variability features and a positive correlation between central frequencies of the variability components and the soft photon index
also at energies above 15 keV. The power spectrum is dominated by red noise in
the soft state instead. These behaviors can be traced to at least 90 keV; d)
The coherence and the phase-lag spectra show different behaviors dependent on
different spectral shapes.