Cuspons, peakons and regular gap solitons between three dispersion curves

Roger Grimshaw, Boris A. Malomed, Georg A. Gottwald

Submitted on 26 March 2002


A general wave model with the cubic nonlinearity is introduced to describe a situation when the linear dispersion relation has three branches, which would intersect in the absence of linear couplings between the three waves. Actually, the system contains two waves with a strong linear coupling between them, to which a third wave is then coupled. This model has two gaps in its linear spectrum. Realizations of this model can be made in terms of temporal or spatial evolution of optical fields in, respectively, a planar waveguide or a bulk-layered medium resembling a photonic-crystal fiber. Another physical system described by the same model is a set of three internal wave modes in a density-stratified fluid. A nonlinear analysis is performed for solitons which have zero velocity in the reference frame in which the group velocity of the third wave vanishes. Disregarding the self-phase modulation (SPM) term in the equation for the third wave, we find two coexisting families of solitons: regular ones, which may be regarded as a smooth deformation of the usual gap solitons in a two-wave system, and cuspons with a singularity in the first derivative at their center. Even in the limit when the linear coupling of the third wave to the first two vanishes, the soliton family remains drastically different from that in the linearly uncoupled system; in this limit, regular solitons whose amplitude exceeds a certain critical value are replaced by peakons. While the regular solitons, cuspons, and peakons are found in an exact analytical form, their stability is tested numerically, which shows that they all may be stable. If the SPM terms are retained, we find that there again coexist two different families of generic stable soliton solutions, namely, regular ones and peakons.


Comment: a latex file with the text and 10 pdf files with figures. Physical Review E, in press

Subjects: Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons; Astrophysics; Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics