Temporal spectrum of multi-conjugate adaptive optics residuals and impact of tip-tilt anisoplanatism on astrometric observations

Giulia Carlà, Cédric Plantet, Lorenzo Busoni, Guido Agapito

Submitted on 2 September 2022


Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) will assist a new era of ground-based astronomical observations with the extremely large telescopes and the Very Large Telescope. High precision relative astrometry is among the main science drivers of these systems and challenging requirements have been set for the astrometric measurements. A clear understanding of the astrometric error budget is needed and the impact of the MCAO correction has to be taken into account. In this context, we propose an analytical formulation to estimate the residual phase produced by an MCAO correction in any direction of the scientific field of view. The residual phase, computed in the temporal frequency domain, allows to consider the temporal filtering of the turbulent phase from the MCAO loop and to extract the temporal spectrum of the residuals, as well as to include other temporal effects such as the scientific integration time. The formulation is kept general and allows to consider specific frameworks by setting the telescope diameter, the turbulence profile, the guide stars constellation, the deformable mirrors configuration, the modes sensed and corrected and the tomographic reconstruction algorithm. The formalism is presented for both a closed loop and a pseudo-open loop control. We use our results to investigate the effect of tip-tilt residuals on MCAO-assisted astrometric observations. We derive an expression for the differential tilt jitter power spectrum that also includes the dependence on the scientific exposure time. Finally, we investigate the contribution of the differential tilt jitter error on the future astrometric observations with MAVIS and MAORY.


Subject: Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics