Boosting the 21 cm forest signals by the clumpy substructures

Kenji Kadota, Pablo Villanueva-Domingo, Kiyotomo Ichiki, Kenji Hasegawa

Submitted on 2 September 2022


We study the contribution of subhalos to the 21 cm forest signal. The halos can host the substructures and including the effects of those small scale clumps can potentially boost the 21 cm optical depth in favor of detecting the 21 cm forest signals. We estimate the boost factor representing the ratio of the optical depth due to the subhalo contribution and that due to the host halo alone (without subhalos). Even though the optical depth boost factor is negligible for a small host halo with the mass of order 105M, the subhalo contribution can enhance the optical depth by an order of magnitude for a host halo of order 107M. The resultant 21 cm absorption line abundance which is obtained by integrating over the halo mass range relevant for the 21 cm forest signal can be enhanced by up to of order 10% due to the substructures. The larger boost factor for a larger host halo would be of particular interest for the 21 cm forest detection because the the contribution of the larger host halos to the 21 cm forest signals is smaller due to their higher temperature and less abundance than the smaller host halos. The subhalos hence can well help the larger host halos more important for the signal estimation which, without considering the subhalos, may not give appreciable contribution to 21 cm forest signals.


Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures

Subject: Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics