# When Less Is More: Consequence-Finding in a Weak Theory of Arithmetic

Zachary Kincaid, Nicolas Koh, Shaowei Zhu

Submitted on 7 November 2022

## Abstract

This paper presents a theory of non-linear integer/real arithmetic and
algorithms for reasoning about this theory. The theory can be conceived as an
extension of linear integer/real arithmetic with a weakly-axiomatized
multiplication symbol, which retains many of the desirable algorithmic
properties of linear arithmetic. In particular, we show that the conjunctive
fragment of the theory can be effectively manipulated (analogously to the usual
operations on convex polyhedra, the conjunctive fragment of linear arithmetic).
As a result, we can solve the following consequence-finding problem: given a
ground formula F, find the strongest conjunctive formula that is entailed by F.
As an application of consequence-finding, we give a loop invariant generation
algorithm that is monotone with respect to the theory and (in a sense)
complete. Experiments show that the invariants generated from the consequences
are effective for proving safety properties of programs that require non-linear
reasoning.