PREPRINT

Black Holes as "Time Capsules": A Cosmological Graviton Background and the Hubble Tension

Tsvi Piran and Raul Jimenez

Submitted on 7 November 2022

Abstract

Minuscule primordial black holes before the end and after inflation can serve as "time capsules" bringing back energy from the past to a later epoch when they evaporate. As these black holes behave like matter, while the rest of the Universe content behaves like radiation, the mass fraction of these black holes, that is tiny at formation, becomes significant later. If sufficiently small, these black holes will evaporate while the Universe is still radiation dominated. We revisit this process and point out that gravitons produced during the evaporation behave as ``dark radiation". If the initial black holes are uniformly distributed so will be the gravitons and in this case they will be free of Silk damping and avoid current limits on "dark radiation" scenarios. Seeds for such black holes can arise during the last phases of inflation. We show here that with suitable parameters, this background graviton field can resolve the Hubble tension. We present current observational constraints on this scenario and suggest upcoming observational tests to prove or refute it. Finally, we also elaborate on the graviton background produced by particle annihilation during the Planck era or shortly after inflation.

Preprint

Comment: Talk given by Tsvi Piran at the IWARA 2022 and RAGTIME24 conferences

Subjects: Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics; Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena; High Energy Physics - Theory

URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/2211.03814

$m_{_{\rm BH}}$, Mass of the BHs (in grams - blue line), $T_e$ the  temperature  of the evaporating BHs (in MeV - orange line)  and $T_{_{\rm BH}}$  the background temperature of the Universe (in GeV - green line) when these  BHs form as a function of $T$, the Universe temperature at the time the BHs evaporate.