AGN-driven Cold Gas Outflow of NGC 1068 Characterized by Dissociation-Sensitive Molecules

Toshiki Saito, Shuro Takano, Nanase Harada, Taku Nakajima, Eva Schinnerer, Daizhong Liu, Akio Taniguchi, Takuma Izumi, Yumi Watanabe, Kazuharu Bamba, Kotaro Kohno, Yuri Nishimura, Sophia Stuber, Tomoka Tosaki

Submitted on 13 July 2022


Recent developments in (sub-)millimeter facilities have drastically changed the amount of information obtained from extragalactic spectral scans. In this paper, we present a feature extraction technique using principal component analysis (PCA) applied to arcsecond-resolution (1.0-2.0 arcsec = 72-144 pc) spectral scan datasets for the nearby type-2 Seyfert galaxy, NGC 1068, using Band 3 of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We apply PCA to 16 well-detected molecular line intensity maps convolved to a common 150 pc resolution. In addition, we include the [SIII]/[SII] line ratio and [CI] 3P1-3P0 maps in the literature, both of whose distributions show remarkable resemblance with that of a kpc-scale biconical outflow from the central AGN. We identify two prominent features: (1) central concentration at the circumnuclear disk (CND) and (2) two peaks across the center that coincide with the biconical outflow peaks. The concentrated molecular lines in the CND are mostly high-dipole molecules (e.g., H13CN, HC3N, and HCN). Line emissions from molecules known to be enhanced in irradiated interstellar medium, CN, C2H, and HNC, show similar concentrations and extended components along the bicone, suggesting that molecule dissociation is a dominant chemical effect of the cold molecular outflow of this galaxy. Although further investigation should be made, this scenario is consistent with the faintness or absence of the emission lines from CO isotopologues, CH3OH, and N2H+, in the outflow, which are easily destroyed by dissociating photons and electrons.


Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in ApJ

Subject: Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies